International cargo transportation play an important role in the activities of enterprises specializing in the import and export of a variety of goods. The activity in this area is very multifaceted, and the correct use of the basic principles of logistics allows you to achieve the maximum reduction in the time between the purchase of raw materials and the supply of finished products. To do this, transport companies use various types of international cargo transportation, and the right choice of delivery method and vehicle is the most important condition for optimizing the entire process.
Main types of international logistics
Delivery of goods can be carried out by various modes of transport - road, rail, water, air or a combined option. Multimodal transportation involves the use of 2 or more modes of transport, such as water and road. Each of these options has its pros and cons and is more suitable for solving specific problems. Therefore, qualified specialists of large logistics companies, such as Grand Logistics Company, always pay special attention to choosing the most suitable transport. Thanks to this, it is possible to transport cargo along the optimal route, in the shortest possible time and with minimal financial costs.
In the USA, Japan, and Western European countries, road transport occupies a leading position, rail transport lags behind them a little, and then comes sea, river and aircraft. In Ukraine, as in most countries of the former CIS, the first place in terms of international cargo transportation is occupied by rail transport. But in recent years there has been a trend of a steady increase in the role of road transport. As for transportation by sea, they are a priority in maritime powers - Japan, USA, China, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Finland, Greece, Great Britain and others.
Features of choosing the optimal transport
1. International trucking are carried out using the following types of vehicles - covered and flatbed trucks, trailers and semi-trailers, refrigerated and isothermal vans, flatbed and open platforms, tanks, car carriers, "Jumbo", automatic couplers, trawls, container carriers.
2. By rail, the delivery of goods can be carried out in closed boxcars and gondola cars, tanks, thermoses, glaciers, isothermal, bunker-type cars, refrigerators, car carriers, platform cars, hoppers, dump cars, kangaroos, transporters.
3. For transportation by sea and across the ocean ships of the following types are used - tankers, gas carriers, dry cargo ships, container ships, bulk carriers, ro-ro ships, ferries, timber carriers, refrigerated ships, dual specialization ships, universal ships.
4. For air cargo transportation Passenger and cargo aircraft can be used. Basically, this is air transport of such world famous manufacturers - AN, IL, TU, Boeing, Airbus.
When choosing the best option for international cargo transportation, it is necessary to take into account a number of important factors - the nature of the cargo, its dimensions and weight, the total volume, the presence of special conditions and requirements for transportation and delivery times, the personal wishes of the customer, the cost of the chosen method. It is also necessary to take into account the requirements and the list of goods allowed for transportation by one or another transport.
Most of the restrictions are when delivering products by air. But it is the fastest way to transport urgent cargo. For example, important documents, especially valuable goods (jewelry and so on), products with a limited shelf life, as well as medicines and medical supplies. Recently, especially in the context of quarantine restrictions, multimodal transportation of various goods is in increasing demand.